C19 Notes

pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection

Author Topic: pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection  (Read 601 times)

stog

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pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection
« on: June 08, 2020, 11:09:28 AM »
The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention, an article in Nature April 28, 2020

"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Alongside investigations into the virology of SARS-CoV-2, understanding the fundamental physiological and immunological processes underlying the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 is vital for the identification and rational design of effective therapies.
The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention article in Nature April 28 2020

Here, we provide an overview of the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We describe the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with the immune system and the subsequent contribution of dysfunctional immune responses to disease progression. From nascent reports describing SARS-CoV-2, we make inferences on the basis of the parallel pathophysiological and immunological features of the other human coronaviruses targeting the lower respiratory tract — severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

Finally, we highlight the implications of these approaches for potential therapeutic interventions that target viral infection and/or immunoregulation.


Quote
Controlling the inflammatory response may be as important as targeting the virus. Therapies inhibiting viral infection and regulation of dysfunctional immune responses may synergize to block pathologies at multiple steps. At the same time, the association between immune dysfunction and outcome of disease severity in patients with COVID-19 should serve as a note of caution in vaccine development and evaluation.


https://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-020-0311-8

« Last Edit: June 08, 2020, 11:27:15 AM by stog »

stog

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Re: pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection -- grants for studies
« Reply #1 on: June 08, 2020, 11:22:09 AM »

Investigation of pre-existing immunity to coronaviruses: implications for immunopathology and pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease

Welcome have awarded Grants for further studies this year

"It is unknown how prior exposure to commonly circulating human coronaviruses (HCoV) impacts immunity against highly-pathogenic species (SARS, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS). There is limited data across Europe, Asia and Africa on the prevalence of infection and seroconversion against widely circulating and mildly symptomatic HCoVs (229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1).

There is a current supposition that antibody-dependent-enhancement (ADE) may play a role in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. ADE occurs when non-neutralising antiviral proteins facilitate virus entry into host cells, leading to increased infectivity in the cells. In such cases, higher viremia has been measured and the clinical course of disease can be more severe. In preclinical animal models, immunopathology was observed after challenge following vaccination with some SARS vaccines. Therefore, concerns have been raised about the impact of immunopathology and ADE on prophylactic vaccination against SARS and possibly SARS-CoV-2.

Our goal is to perform detailed systems serology of pre-existing immunity in children and adults, from the UK and Africa, towards novel and commonly circulating coronaviruses.

These studies highlight the limited knowledge in the field, and the need for a systematic approach to investigating cross-reactive humoral immunity against HCoV to inform the immunopathology and pathophysiology of COVID-19."


https://wellcome.ac.uk/grant-funding/people-and-projects/grants-awarded/investigation-pre-existing-immunity-coronaviruses
« Last Edit: June 08, 2020, 11:33:59 AM by stog »

stog

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Re: pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection
« Reply #2 on: June 08, 2020, 11:29:58 AM »
see also the study which "documents a robust antiviral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in a group of 20 adults who had recovered from COVID-19. The findings show that the body’s immune system is able to recognize SARS-CoV-2 in many ways, dispelling fears that the virus may elude ongoing efforts to create an effective vaccine."

but also cautions the differing immune responses, but at least a benchmark response is noted


http://www.soul-trade.com/C19Notes/index.php/topic,63.msg106.html#msg106
« Last Edit: June 08, 2020, 11:32:37 AM by stog »